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Elements of Grading, Second Edition

A Guide to Effective Practice

Effective teacher feedback is crucial to improving student achievement. The author provides educators with practical suggestions for making the grading process more fair, accurate, specific, and timely. In addition to examples and case studies, this edition offers a significant amount of new content, including an exploration of how the Common Core State Standards and new technologies impact grading practices.


  • Evaluate grading systems at all levels from national policies to classroom practices.
  • Learn strategies for making grading practices fair, accurate, specific, and timely to improve student learning.
  • Examine how the Common Core State Standards impact grading practices and systems.
  • Discover ways to utilize new technology tools for more efficient grading.
  • Examine sample grading policies and standards-based report cards.
  • Use reproducible tools to reflect on and improve the grading process.

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Elements of Grading

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Preface: Finding Common Ground
Introduction: Starting the Conversation
Chapter 1: Effective Grading in a Standards-Based World
Chapter 2: What the Common Core Means for Grading
Chapter 3: The Impact of Feedback on Achievement
Chapter 4: The Grading Debate
Chapter 5: How to Improve Fairness
Chapter 6: How to Improve Accuracy
Chapter 7: How to Improve Specificity
Chapter 8: How to Improve Timeliness
Chapter 9: Time-Saving Strategies for Busy Teachers
Chapter 10: Student Voices in Grading Practices
Chapter 11: Leading Change for Effective Grading Policies
Chapter 12: Grading for Students With Special Needs
Chapter 13: The Impact of Technology on Grading Practices
Conclusion: Inspiring Change in Grading Policies




Sample Grading Policies

Sample Report Cards